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First thoughts...

It has always been said that “the book is better than the movie.” This blog post gives a behind-the-scenes look at the writing that inspired the Friday 5 video.


Due to the Mediacurrent Friday 5 being a series that lasts 5 minutes, and the unfortunate absence of a suitable ”Friday half hour to 45 minutes” show, the content would be again, reimagined.

Well, today I'm making custom breadcrumbs.

If you or others have done things the right way, you can probably use Easy Breadcrumbs or Views Breadcrumb before doing it this way. But if you haven't, stick around and learn about Drupal breadcrumbs.

There are multiple stack overflow posts on this but none of them actually seem to work for me. It seems that the code for Breadcrumbs in core has changed over time.

On The Air With Palantir, Ep. 08: Los Drupaleros On the Air With Palantir brandt Fri, 09/08/2017 - 14:48 Juan D. Flores with Allison Manley Sep 8, 2017

We want to make your project a success.

Let's Chat.

All about one Drupalero's experience in the Drupal community.

Welcome to the latest episode of On the Air with Palantir, a long-form (ad-hoc) podcast by Palantir.net where we go in-depth on topics related to the business of web design and development. In this episode, Allison Manley is joined by Juan Daniel Flores of Rootstack, and Juan dives into the Drupal world of Latin and Central America.

iTunes | RSS Feed | Download | Transcript

Subscribe to all of our episodes over on iTunes.

We want to make your project a success.

Let's Chat. Transcript

Allison Manley [AM]: Hi, everyone. Welcome to On the Air With Palantir, a podcast by Palantir.net where we go in-depth on topics related to web design and development. I'm Allison Manley, Sales and Marketing manager. Today, my guest is Juan Daniel Flores of Rootstack. Juan spent some time with me a few months back telling me about all the exciting things happening with Drupal in Latin America. Here we are at DrupalCon Baltimore 2017-

Juan D. Flores [JDF]: That's right.

AM: ... in the convention center at the corner of Pratt and Charles Street. I am sitting with ...

JDF: Juan Flores from Rootstack from Panama.

AM: From Panama. You came all the way from Panama.

JDF: Yes, sunny, tropical Panama. Yeah. The temperature is quite a good a change for me.

AM: Is it?

JDF: I was born in Colombia, in Bogota, actually. The temperature is more or less like this. I really miss the cool temperature, because in Panama, sometimes it gets really, really hot.

AM: Well, we're welcome to give you a nice, rainy break, so ...

JDF: Yeah, I appreciate it.

AM: Is this your first Drupal Con?

JDF: Yeah, this is my first personal, my first Drupal Con in the States, but we have been attending Drupal Con like, since five years ago. We are three partners, and they do most of the traveling.

AM: Okay. Excellent. How long have you been involved in Drupal?

JDF: We have been involved with Drupal like from seven years ago right after college. We graduated, and we got our degrees, and we started the company. We started with Drupal right away. We learned about Drupal, actually, by a friend in the college. It was like we saw the tool. We saw all the things that you could do, and we were like hooked up, like, "We have to do this. We have to use this." It's been quite a long time.

AM: Wow. That's great. Were you self-taught or ...

JDF: Totally self-taught. In the university, they teach you certain things, but to be, to thrive in this world, you really have to be very proficient in learning by yourself. You have to be active. You have to be checking what's going in the world. Thanks to our desire to know more, we picked it up and here we are seven years later.

AM: And here you are. Glad to have you. You call yourselves the Drupaleros, sort of jokingly.

JDF: Yeah, that's the term we use for Drupal. That's in Spanish. It's a term that we use in general.

AM: Universally.

JDF: Yeah. Universal.

AM: So that's not just the Panamanian-

JDF: Exactly. Exactly.

AM: Okay. I feel like there's a presentation next year for just the Spanish-speaking Drupaleros. I feel like there's some sort of presentation you should make around that and what's happening in Latin and Central America.

JDF: That will be interesting. Even though like I feel that we're a little bit late to the party, in terms of doing stuff, there has been a lot of work that has been done by Latin developers. For example, there's Jesus Olivas, which is ... Well, and the team from We Know It, that they have been working hard with the Drupal console project, which is picking up, really, a great amount of fans. He gave a talk yesterday. He's from Mexico. There's another guy. His name is Omers. He's also from Mexico. The other guys, Anso and Kenya are from Costa Rica.

AM: How many would you say there are total between Latin and Central America, you know, that you keep in touch with on a regular basis working in Drupal?

JDF: It's hard to tell to know a certain number because, unfortunately, the community there is like a little bit shy. But I can say that, for example, if I can measure events that we have gone to, for example, the DrupalCon in Costa Rica, or the DrupalCon Central America that we did a couple years ago, I would say we could see around 400, but it's hard to ... They show up for events. There are a lot of people that show at events. It's the the building the community that's hard.

AM: How did you start out? Tell me about the beginnings of your business, then.

JDF: We were in college. One of the partners approach to us. He told us like, "Hey, I think we should do this. We should make a company for our own." We are good, each one, in our own stuff. For example, one of the partners is very good at business development, organizing. The other one is very good at developing. He's a very strong skill set. I'm more like the creative one in terms of design, in terms of implementing the science. We're sort like a match in terms of our skills. We started that in 2010, and we slowly grew. We recruited guys fresh out of college from our own university. Then, we started to build the team. One of the things that I have heard here is that it's hard to find Drupal developers. Which if it's hard for you, it's harder for us. It's been years of finding good people that we think that can be a good fit and training them. I think there's a value in that, in home-growing the developers. Because if they aren't there, you have to make them.

AM: Right. How big are you now?

JDF: We are 25.

AM: Oh, so you went from 3 to 25 in just seven years.

JDF: Yeah.

AM: Wow.

JDF: We have 18 developers. Then marketing sales, designers, so yeah. We hope to keep growing, and yeah. Basically, the objective is to be bigger, to go for more services. Even though we started as a Drupal shop, now we're doing more stuff. We're doing automations. We're doing mobile development. We're doing interesting projects in terms of challenges. For example, last year we did a project for a company here. Basically, we did a mobile app in Ionic that you could turn on, turn off, set the temperature of your spa machine. They sell spa machines that have a wifi antennae. You could be in your office, and you say, "Oh, I'm going home." You start the spa. You set the temperature. When you get there, there it is.

AM: That's excellent.

JDF: Yeah.

AM: That's quite a range of services that you do provide already, even if you feel like you want to add more.

JDF: Yeah, yeah. It is to find projects that are challenging and interesting. That's the what we're looking for.

AM: What would you say is your main client base or what vertical?

JDF: Basically, companies that split in two, in terms of half the company works with agencies here in the States providing Drupal services, so back-end, front-end development, and the other half of the team works with local clients. In terms of local and regional clients, our main verticals are government, banks, certain industries, like ... You have big clients like supermarket chains, people that are looking for very complex web projects, or automations, or yeah, that kind of solutions that we can provide. Yeah, that's what we are ... The companies, like two companies in terms of what we focus on.

AM: Fair enough. Your first DrupalCon, what do you think so far?

JDF: It's been great. I mean, the level of the sessions have been great. I really like the fact that people are very open to talk, very friendly. I know that in our conferences that, for example, I have been, it's harder to meet people, to find a point of conversation where you can start. But here, it has been great. The parties have been great, also. They provide a good space for talking. For example, yesterday, I was with the guys at Lullabot. They were super friendly, super fun. We have a lot of fun. Yeah, I really like. It's right what they say about the Drupal community. It's very open and very ... Well, even though what has happened recently, I think the people here are very good people, you know?

AM: I would agree with that.

JDF: Well, I hope that you go next year to Nashville.

AM: I will be there in Nashville. I would love to go to Costa Rica if I could swing it, but-

JDF: Yeah, so there in August. It's super fun. There's a good vibe always. We always do some, like after the camp, we always do like a trip to an island, or a beach, or-

AM: Forest. Something.

JDF: Yeah, very relaxing.

AM: Sounds amazing.

JDF: You can add your vacations and you do a-

AM: Any others to look forward to or ...

JDF: That's the ones I think right now the top of my head.

AM: All right.

JDF: I think Mexico is organizing one, too.

AM: Fantastic.

JDF: Yeah.

AM: Look forward to it.

JDF: Yeah.

AM: Thank you so much, Juan.

JDF: Yeah, look forward to seeing you. Thank you.

AM: Thanks for listening. Follow us on Twitter at Palantir or read our blog at palantir.net. Have a great day.

It's not always possible to use a path to determine block visibility.

Therefore, here is how you programmatically disable a block on specific view without recourse to path.

At DrupalCon Vienna One Shoe will host the very first Drupal Marketing Sprint on Thursday, 28 September 2017. The goal is for Drupal businesses and agencies to work together to create marketing materials that promote Drupal as a whole. Come prepared with examples of Drupal marketing material that has caught your attention so you can start the sprint with something to work with. Read more in the following blog from Michel van Velde, One Shoe CEO.

In a current project, I had to generate PDF documents based on custom entities on a Drupal 8 page. Although this has never been so easy than with Dompdf, I've stumbled across two problems which cost my some time to find out and fix.

We shall do a deep dive of Drupal's database schema. For the purpose of simplicity, we shall deal exclusively with SQL queries and not step out of DB land unless its required. By doing this exercise, we can derive Drupal's schema from first principles. Let's start with a humble node, more specifically, an article content type which ships by default with Drupal's core. It consists of the node ID, the node type and node properties, i.e. the node title and node status. We are assuming only one bundle, the "article" bundle for now.

DrupalCon's 5 top DevOps & Automation sessions

With the end of September, DrupalCon Vienna is also coming closer and we can't wait to welcome you to our booth #S08. As a Silver sponsor of the event, we'll have the chance to present continuous update management to you on site. But - we also can't wait to learn a lot from other agencies and attendees! At DrupalCon there's always a chance to learn something new, be it a whole new approach or a connecting piece of unidentified issues - by asking but most of all by listening.


Drupal Drupal Community Drupal Planet Drupalcon Business Events

Wow and Sell vs. Understand and Aha...

Proprietary Content Management Systems (CMS) and online form builders have a lot of immediate wow, including snazzy marketing and very fancy user interfaces. I admit it: I like wowing people and the Webform module's user experience with video tutorials and it's very slick-looking elements like signatures and likert are meant to impress you. The Webform module's "Aha" moment happens when you grasp the software's full potential. Suddenly you understand the Drupal mantras, "There is a module for that; There is a hook for this; Anything and everything is customizable." Aha indeed.

The Webform User Interface/Experience

Circling back to Webform module's user interface and experience, there’s a limit to how much wow I can build. On the flip side, there is unlimited aha available. The latest releases of the Webform module includes a significantly improved UI with Ajax, element previews, tabbed dialogs, and more. The Webform module may never have a slick WYSIWYG drag-n-drop user interface... I’m okay with that. I’d like to share with you the current state of the Webform UI/UX and talk about some key concepts.

The current user interface for the Webform module leverages existing UX patterns from Drupal core. For example, using a modal dialog for creating new elements was inspired by the Blocks UI. The Webform module also includes support for core's experiment system tray. My goal is to provide "fluid user experience" that is logical and works for all users while providing an incredible amount of configurability and flexibility.

Here is latest and relatively final Webform UI/UX.

It’s not how you build the webform but what you do with the webform submission.

The actual form builder is not the most important feature of the Webform module. Without a doubt, generating form and submission handling is by far the most important aspect of...Read More

In last few years, protecting data from an unauthorised use has become a challenging task. Recently, we came across a similar situation while working on a media and publishing industry project where most of the content was used through services. And we were requested to protect the content from unauthorised use and help in stopping such practices. 

Here in this scenario, RESTful Web Services API played a significant role in overcoming the situation. However, in some cases, the default RESTful API doesn’t work effectively and leave the requirement unfulfilled. In this case, we will create a custom REST method that helps you to access nodes using API keys. Let’s see how we can achieve this?

Here we need to deal with two things:

  • Create a View to export data…
Migrated: Now on Drupal 8! mglaman Mon, 09/11/2017 - 15:06

My personal site is now officially migrated onto Drupal 8! I had first attempted a migration of my site back when Drupal 8.0 was released but had a few issues. With Drupal 8.3 it was nearly flawless (maybe even 8.2, but I had put the idea back burner.) I did have some interesting issues to workaround

Missing filter plugins

My migration process was halted and littered with errors due to missing plugins, specifically around my text formats. The culprits were:

Along with our CTO, Kristen Pol, we have a new Accessibility Lead and Senior Front-end Developer, Carie Fisher, who will be in Vienna. We are excited to have her onboard! Carie is one of the community leaders who received a well-deserved scholarship to attend DrupalCon Vienna.

Drupal is a great platform that has a great community and a great number of sites developed thanks to it. What makes it so great? What helps Drupal stand out among the competition? We’ve explained you 6 reasons why you'll love Drupal websites, and if you do love them and have your own website on Drupal now, then this article will give you a hint about what you should pay attention to stand out among your business competitors and defeat them.

Read more
Drupal Modules: The One Percent — Link Attributes Widget (video tutorial) NonProfit Tue, 09/12/2017 - 10:15 Episode 35

Here is where we seek to bring awareness to Drupal modules running on less than 1% of reporting sites. Today we'll investigate Link Attributes Widget, a module which extends core's link field formatter, allowing you add attributes through the UI.

Drupal 8 Learning Series: 2. Disable Cache in a Devel Environment Leander Lindahl Tue, 09/12/2017 - 19:04

I had a very strange problem wherein I was not able to affect variables being passed to views-view-grid--my_view.html.twig.

A Developer’s Impact on Implementing an Accessible Web A Developer’s Impact on Implementing an Accessible Web Anthony Simone Tue, 09/12/2017 - 21:30

Creating accessible web applications can initially be quite a daunting task. Whether you’re working on a project that needs to be compliant with law or not, it can be hard to figure out what is most important to focus on. There’s ADA Compliance, WCAG 2.0 Compliance, and 508 Compliance, and navigating the technical differences between them all can end up taking more time than simply focusing on building accessible applications in the first place.

All three of the above types of compliance have different histories and different rules about the types of websites, web applications, or organizations they affect, however, at their core, they all are trying to accomplish the same thing: Make an accessible web.


So then what is accessibility? From a developer’s point of view, this can be a difficult question to answer when initially delving into the subject matter. Digging through documents related to the compliance patterns can be complicated, especially if your main concern is ensuring you pass compliance by any of the above definitions.

It can be easy to lose sight of the purpose of implementing an accessible web when trying to sift through the regulations. The goal is to make your application usable by everyone! Despite the somewhat complicated language around some of these compliance patterns, the WCAG 2 At a Glance page gives a good general baseline of what to consider. It breaks accessibility down into 4 general requirements: perceivable, operable, understandable, robust.


  • Provide text alternatives for non-text content so that it can be changed into other forms people need, such as large print, braille, speech, symbols or simpler language.
  • Provide captions and other alternatives for multimedia.
  • Create content that can be presented in different ways,
  • including by assistive technologies, without losing meaning.
  • Make it easier for users to see and hear content.


  • Make all functionality available from a keyboard.
  • Give users enough time to read and use content.
  • Do not use content that causes seizures.
  • Help users navigate and find content.


  • Make text readable and understandable.
  • Make content appear and operate in predictable ways.
  • Help users avoid and correct mistakes.


  • Maximize compatibility with current and future user tools.


Maintaining the highest grade of AAA compliance will grow your audience, protect you from any future litigation, and provide equal access for Americans with disabilities.  

Ultimately, the intention is quite simple. Everyone should be able to use, access, and consume the content of your website. If this is the governing principle you use when planning a new web project, you’ll definitely be successful building an accessible web application.

Know Your Audiences

Accessibility considerations affect a wide variety of audiences. Understanding how these different audiences use the internet can give a great amount of insight into what a developer can accomplish.

There are two general groups of users we want to consider: users with some amount of vision impairment and users with some range of mobility issues. (Note: this is not to discount other groups that are specifically covered under some of the compliance documents. In this article, we are going to cover some best practices that a developer can implement while building a site, as opposed to considerations that may come up during UX or design like contrast issues, UI implementations, and more.)

Both of these groups of users are unique. If we look deeper at each of these cases, we’ll learn more about how they are interacting with the websites we build.

Motor Impairment

Internet users that experience some amount of motor impairment are generally using different means of navigating the internet than the traditional keyboard and mouse/trackpad. Users may not be able to manipulate a mouse and instead, only use a keyboard. Inversely, they may not be able to use a traditional keyboard but use an alternate interface to interact with a website. Some people’s motor ability may limit them to using a small number of keys.

The big takeaway from the motor impairment user group is that web navigation must be clear, straightforward and possible with just a keyboard. Try this, go about some everyday tasks on the internet only using your keyboard. You’ll immediately start to notice websites that have or have not taken accessibility into account.

Visual Impairment

Users with some degree of visual impairment will typically consume data on a web page differently. This can vary widely on a case by case scenario, but users may increase the font size, they may rely on descriptive copy to understand the contents of images, and they may rely on a screen reader to translate all visual content into auditory content on a webpage.

The big takeaway here is that content of a web page is consumed in many different ways. Appropriate markup and theming goes a long way for someone using a screenreader. If you are on a mac, you can go to System Preferences > Accessibility and turn voiceover on, then use command + F5 to enable it. Try it out!

It’s important to keep in mind that many users employ a combination of features from both user categories. Which means these accessibility features are important for all device types, not just a desktop sized experience.

Where to Start?

If at all possible, start at the beginning! Accessibility shouldn’t be treated like browser testing and ignored until QA at the end of a project. By then, you’ll likely have a lot of work ahead of you. If you’re considering all of this functionality as you are planning elements like menus, sliders, tabs, accordions, or other functional components that either help with navigation or display content, then you can start with an appropriate implementation from the beginning. This lets you plan your features and components appropriately within the context of accessibility instead of having to build around them later.

The following list of considerations is a great place to start when planning for accessibility on a new project or going through an old project to test functionality.

Focus Ring

All browsers have a default style associated with items that have focus, like links and buttons. As a general rule, you should not remove this. Or, if you are modifying it, make sure the replacement style is very obvious and easy to identify.



A user who is navigating your website with a keyboard relies on focus styles to know where their current context is within the webpage. Without that they would be totally lost, it would be like using a mouse with an invisible cursor.


Menus are one of the most important components on many websites. They allow you to navigate through the whole web application. Top priority with menu implementation is ensuring all links can be accessed with the keyboard, specifically the tab key.

Visibility / Display

It’s important to know what a screen reader recognizes as an item in the flow, and what it doesn’t. Though some screen readers may have specific behavior, the general rule is that elements with display: none; or visibility: hidden; are ignored by screen readers. Generally, content that is off screen, but not hidden in either of the above ways is considered an element in the flow by a screen reader. It’s important to know the difference because it can be used to make the experience better, and misuse can create a keyboard navigation nightmare.

A good rule of thumb is anything that shouldn’t be visible by a user using a keyboard and mouse should likely be hidden in one of the above ways. For example, if there is a menu that slides into place from off screen after you’ve scrolled down the page a certain amount. If this item isn’t explicitly hidden, someone navigating with tabs may have to go through all of the items they can’t see before they reach the real content.

Note: the visibility property can be transitioned, whereas, the display property cannot. This may come in handy when implementing transitions!

Skip Link

A useful convention for keyboard navigation users is the implement a “skip link.” The idea is that the very first time you click tab on a page, it focuses on a previously hidden link, that when clicked, will move your focus to the main content of the page. Drupal has a default implementation of this out of the box, but depending on your site structure, some extra customization might be appropriate. The following is an example of a snippet you can use for skip link functionality.

var $skipLinkHolder = $('#skip-to-content'),
  $skipLink = $skipLinkHolder.find('.skip-to-content-link');

$skipLink.on('click', function(e) {
    var $target = $($(this).attr('href'));
    $target.attr('tabindex', '-1');
    $target.on('blur focusout', function() {

You can also take advantage of the fact that offscreen items can be focused here by positioning it off screen but giving it different styles on focus.

Tab Order

It’s important to be aware of actual DOM markup source order and tab order. Too often, we position things absolutely or fixed and neglect the actual source order of the element. This can cause confusing scenarios when navigating a website by tabbing. It is important to ensure absolute and fixed position items are placed reasonably in the DOM with respect to a tab user's arrival upon them. The page can go a long way to make tab navigation more straightforward.

ARIA / Functional Components / Existing Tools

ARIA is a specification that handles adding more descriptive, contextual information to elements that can be used by screen readers to give the users extra context. ARIA can get a little bit confusing. Generally, there isn’t a huge amount of documentation around it, and it’s a spec describing purpose but not the implementation of these tags. So, different screen readers can potentially have some different behavior. Rolling your own functional component can be a pretty complicated endeavor when accessibility is taken into account. Fortunately, there are a lot of great existing tools backed by fairly large communities that can get you pretty far if you’re willing to leverage them.

Many tools and frameworks have accessibility baked in. It’s worth taking a look at what’s available before deciding to roll your own for some established types of functionality, like menus, tabs, accordions, etc. Foundation is a great tool that is very flexible regarding implementation. The majority of its components support accessibility very well, specifically the menus, accordions, and tabs components. They are a great option to use as a starter, and you can potentially use them for their markup, js, and ARIA support and do your own completely custom theme implementation over top.

Some popular solutions for problems like better multi selects already exist with ARIA and accessibility considerations (Select2 and Selectize). Though they might not all be perfect, leveraging existing tools and communities can be a great help. Because we don’t all have first-hand access to groups of users who use assistive technologies, this is an essential tool when implementing accessible web applications.


We learned about specific ways a developer can take responsibility for web accessibility. The responsibility of building an accessible web goes far beyond the developers during implementation, but there’s a lot that a developer can do on their own. The many layers of compliance and rules notwithstanding, taking some time to learn who your users are and how they’re using the web gives us the opportunity to build solutions that are accessible to as many people as possible.


Hello, Drupal Community! Our team has prepared two BoFs for DrupalCon Vienna.


Drupal and a higher education: we invite Drupal experts and higher education representatives to see what problems a higher education wants to solve with the help of Drupal and how it can be done in practice. 

The BoF details


Marketing challenges: promoting and selling Drupal services, building the company image and communicating with a target audience are the hard processes. Specialists of all the categories are welcome to share the typical challenges and propose the solutions.

The BoF details

Last year, Matthew Tift and I examined Drupal.org's commit data to understand who develops Drupal, how much of that work is sponsored, and where that sponsorship comes from. We published our analysis in a blog post called "Who Sponsors Drupal Development?". A year later, I wanted to present an update. This year’s report will also cover additional data, including gender and geographical diversity, and project sponsorship.

Understanding how an open-source project works is important because it establishes a benchmark for project health and scalability. Scaling an open-source project is a difficult task. As an open-source project’s rate of adoption grows, the number of people that benefit from the project also increases. Often the open-source project also becomes more complex as it expands, which means that the economic reward of helping to improve the project decreases.

A recent article on the Bitcoin and Ethereum contributor communities illustrates this disparity perfectly. Ethereum and Bitcoin have market capitalizations valued at $30 billion and $70 billion, respectively. However, both projects have fewer than 40 meaningful contributors, and contribution isn’t growing despite the rising popularity of cryptocurrency.

According to Bitcoin's GitHub data, Bitcoin has less than 40 active contributors.According to Ethereum's GitHub data, Ethereum has less than 20 active contributors.

Drupal, by comparison, has a diverse community of contributors. In the 12-month period between July 1, 2016 to June 30, 2017 we saw code contributions on Drupal.org from 7,240 different individuals and 889 different companies. This does not mean that Drupal is exempt from the challenges of scaling an open-source project. We hope that this report provides transparency about Drupal project development and encourages more individuals and organizations incentive to contribute. We also will highlight areas where our community can and should do better.

What is the Drupal.org credit system?

In the spring of 2015, after proposing ideas for giving credit and discussing various approaches at length, Drupal.org added the ability for people to attribute their work to an organization or customer in the Drupal.org issue queues. Maintainers of Drupal modules, themes and distributions can award issues credits to people who help resolve issues with code, translations, documentation, design and more.

A screenshot of an issue comment on Drupal.org. You can see that jamadar worked on this patch as a volunteer, but also as part of his day job working for TATA Consultancy Services on behalf of their customer, Pfizer.

Credits are a powerful motivator for both individuals and organizations. Accumulating credits provides individuals with a way to showcase their expertise. Organizations can utilize credits to help recruit developers or to increase their visibility in the Drupal.org marketplace.

While the benefits are evident, it is important to note a few of the limitations in Drupal.org’s current credit system:

  • Contributing to issues on Drupal.org is not the only way to contribute. Other activities, such as sponsoring events, promoting Drupal, and providing help and mentorship, are important to the long-term health of the Drupal project. Many of these activities are not currently captured by the credit system. For this post, we chose to only look at code contributions.
  • We acknowledge that parts of Drupal are developed on GitHub and therefore aren't fully credited on Drupal.org. The actual number of contributions and contributors could be significantly higher than what we report.
  • Even when development is done on Drupal.org, the credit system is not used consistently; because using the credit system is optional, a lot of code committed on Drupal.org has no or incomplete contribution credits.
  • Not all code credits are the same. We currently don't have a way to account for the complexity and quality of contributions; one person might have worked several weeks for just one credit, while another person might receive a credit for ten minutes of work. In the future, we should consider issuing credit data in conjunction with issue priority, patch size, etc. We can also reduce the need for trivial credits by automating patch rerolls and automating coding style fixes.
Who is working on Drupal?

For our analysis we looked at all the issues that were marked "closed" or "fixed" in the 12-month period from July 1, 2016 to June 30, 2017. What we learned is that there were 23,238 issues marked "closed" or "fixed", a 22% increase from the 19,095 issues in the 2015-2016 period. Those 23,238 issues had 42,449 issue credits, a 30% increase from the 32,711 issue credits recorded in the previous year. Issue credits against Drupal core remained roughly the same year over year, meaning almost all of this growth came from increased activity in contributed projects. This is no surprise. Drupal development is cyclical, and during this period of the Drupal 8 development cycle, most of the Drupal community has been focused on porting modules from Drupal 7 to Drupal 8. Of the 42,449 issue credits reported this year, 20% (8,619 credits) were for Drupal core, while 80% (33,830 credits) went to contributed themes, modules and distributions.

Compared to the previous year, we also saw an increase in both the number of people contributing and the number of organizations contributing. Drupal.org received code contributions from 7,240 different individuals and 889 different organizations.

The number of individual contributors is up 28% year over year and the number of organizations contributing is up 26% year over year.

While the number of individual contributors rose, a relatively small number of individuals still do the majority of the work. Approximately 47% of individual contributors received just one credit. Meanwhile, the top 30 contributors (the top 0.4%) account for over 17% of the total credits, indicating that these individuals put an incredible amount of time and effort in developing Drupal and its contributed projects:

RankUsernameIssues1jrockowitz5372dawehner4213RenatoG4084bojanz3515Berdir3356mglaman3347Wim Leers3328alexpott3299DamienMcKenna24510jhodgdon24211drunken monkey23812naveenvalecha19613Munavijayalakshmi19214borisson_19115yongt941218916klausi18517Sam15218418miro_dietiker18219Pavan B S18020ajay_reddy17621phenaproxima17222sanchiz16223slashrsm16124jhedstrom15525xjm15126catch14727larowlan14528rakesh.gectcr14129benjy13930dhruveshdtripathi138

Out of the top 30 contributors featured, 19 were also recognized as top contributors in our 2015-2016 report. These Drupalists’ dedication and continued contribution to the project has been crucial to Drupal’s development. It’s also exciting to see 11 new names on the list. This mobility is a testament to the community’s evolution and growth.

Next, we looked at both the gender and geographic diversity of Drupal.org code contributors. While these are only two examples of diversity, this is the only available data that contributors can choose to share on their Drupal.org profiles. The reported data shows that only 6% of the recorded contributions were made by contributors that identify as female, which indicates a steep gender gap. Like in most open-source projects, the gender imbalance in Drupal is profound and underscores the need to continue fostering diversity and inclusion in our community.

The gender representation behind the issue credits. When measuring geographic diversity, we saw individual contributors from 6 different continents and 116 different countries: The top 20 countries from which contributions originate. The data is compiled by aggregating the countries of all individual contributors behind each commit. Note that the geographical location of contributors doesn't always correspond with the origin of their sponsorship. Wim Leers, for example, works from Belgium, but his funding comes from Acquia, which has the majority of its customers in North America.How much of the work is sponsored?

Drupal is used by more than one million websites. The vast majority of the individuals and organizations behind these Drupal websites never participate in the development of the project. They might use the software as it is or might not feel the need to help drive its development. We have to provide more incentive for these individuals and organizations to contribute back to the project.

Issue credits can be marked as "volunteer" and "sponsored" simultaneously (shown in jamadar's screenshot near the top of this post). This could be the case when a contributor does the minimum required work to satisfy the customer's need, in addition to using their spare time to add extra functionality.

While Drupal started out as a 100% volunteer-driven project, today the majority of the code on Drupal.org is sponsored by organizations. Only 11% of the commit credits that we examined in 2016-2017 were "purely volunteer" credits (4,498 credits), in stark contrast to the 46% that were "purely sponsored". In other words, there were four times as many "purely sponsored" credits as "purely volunteer" credits.

A few comparisons with the 2015-2016 data:

  • The credit system is used more. Between July 1, 2015 and June 30, 2016, 37% of all credits had no attribution while in the more recent period between July 1, 2016 to June 30, 2017, only 28% of credits lacked attribution. More people have become aware of the credit system, the attribution options, and their benefits.
  • Sponsored credits are growing faster than volunteer credits. Both "purely volunteer" and "purely sponsored" credits grew, but "purely sponsored" credits grew faster. There are two reasons why this could be the case: (1) more contributions are sponsored and (2) organizations are more likely to use the credit system compared to volunteers.

No data is perfect, but it feels safe to conclude that most of the work on Drupal is sponsored. At the same time, the data shows that volunteer contribution remains very important to Drupal. Maybe most importantly, while the number of volunteers and sponsors has grown year over year in absolute terms, sponsored contributions appear to be growing faster than volunteer contributions. This is consistent with how open source projects grow and scale.

Who is sponsoring the work?

Now that we have established that most of the work on Drupal is sponsored, we want to study which organizations contribute to Drupal. While 889 different organizations contributed to Drupal, approximately 50% of them received four credits or fewer. The top 30 organizations (roughly the top 3%) account for about 48% of the total credits, which implies that the top 30 companies play a crucial role in the health of the Drupal project. The graph below shows the top 30 organizations and the number of credits they received between July 1, 2016 and June 30, 2017:

While not immediately obvious from the graph above, different types of companies are active in Drupal's ecosystem:

Category Description Traditional Drupal businesses Small-to-medium-sized professional services companies that make money primarily using Drupal. They typically employ fewer than 100 employees, and because they specialize in Drupal, many of these professional services companies contribute frequently and are a huge part of our community. Examples are Chapter Three (shown on graph) and Lullabot (shown on graph). Digital marketing agencies Larger full-service agencies that have marketing-led practices using a variety of tools, typically including Drupal, Adobe Experience Manager, Sitecore, WordPress, etc. They tend to be larger, with the larger agencies employing thousands of people. Examples are Wunderman and Mirum. System integrators Larger companies that specialize in bringing together different technologies into one solution. Example system agencies are Accenture, TATA Consultancy Services, Capgemini and CI&T. Technology and infrastructure companies Examples are Acquia (shown on graph), Lingotek, BlackMesh, Rackspace, Pantheon and Platform.sh. End-users Examples are Pfizer (shown on graph) or NBCUniversal.

A few observations:

  • Almost all of the sponsors in the top 30 are traditional Drupal businesses. Companies like MD Systems (12 employees), Valuebound (34 employees), Chapter Three (27 employees), Commerce Guys (7 employees) and PreviousNext (20 employees) are, despite their size, critical to Drupal's success.

    It's worth highlighting MD Systems, which ranks second in the list of the top 30 contributing organizations, and is the number-one contributor among traditional Drupal businesses. What distinguishes MD Systems from most others is that it has embedded contribution into its corporate philosophy. For every commercial project, MD Systems invests 20% of that project’s value back into Drupal. They believe that using commercial projects as the foundation for community contribution leads to more meaningful and healthier contributions for Drupal and a lower total cost of ownership for their customers. This is different from other organizations, where employees are allotted a number of hours per month to contribute outside of customer-facing projects. There is no denying that MD Systems has had a tremendous impact on the Drupal community with contributions that are both frequent and impactful.

  • Compared to these traditional Drupal businesses, Acquia has nearly 800 employees and several full-time Drupal contributors. Acquia’s Office of the CTO (OCTO) works to resolve some of the most complex issues on Drupal.org, many of which are not recognized by the credit system (e.g. release management, communication, sprint organizing, and project coordination). However, I believe that Acquia should contribute even more due to our comparative size.
  • No digital marketing agencies show up in the top 30, though some of them are starting to contribute. It is exciting that an increasing number of digital marketing agencies are delivering beautiful experiences using Drupal. As a community, we need to work to ensure that each of these firms are contributing back to the project with the same commitment that we see from firms like Chapter Three, MD Systems or CI&T.
  • The only system integrator in the top 30 is CI&T, which ranked 6th with 664 credits. As far as system integrators are concerned, CI&T is a smaller player with approximately 2,500 employees. However, we do see various system integrators outside of the top 30, including Globant, Capgemini, Sapient and TATA Consultancy Services. Each of these system integrators reported 30 to 70 credits in the past year. Finally, Wipro began contributing this year with 2 credits. We expect, or hope, to see system integrators contribute more and more, especially given the number of Drupal developers they employ. Many have sizable Drupal practices with hundreds of Drupal developers, yet contributing to open source is relatively new and often not well-understood.
  • Infrastructure and software companies play an important role in our community, yet only Acquia appears in the top 30. While Acquia has a professional services division, 75% of the contributions come from the product organization (including the Office of the CTO and the Acquia Lightning team). Other contributing infrastructure companies include Pantheon and Platform.sh, which are both venture-backed platform-as-a-service companies that originated from the Drupal community. Pantheon has 17 credits and Platform.sh has 47 credits. Amazee Labs, who is building an infrastructure business, reported 51 credits. Rackspace is a public company hosting thousands of Drupal sites; they have 48 credits. Lingotek offers cloud-based translation management software and has 94 credits.
  • We saw two end-users in the top 30 corporate sponsors: Pfizer (251 credits, up from 158 credits the year before) and the German company bio.logis (212 credits). Other notable customers outside of the top 30 were Workday, Wolters Kluwer, Burda Media, University of Colorado Boulder, YMCA and OpenY, CARD.com and NBCUniversal.
Sponsored code contributions to Drupal.org from technology and infrastructure companies. The chart does not reflect sponsored code contributions on GitHub, Drupal event sponsorship, and the many forms of value that these companies add to Drupal and other open-source communities.

We can conclude that technology and infrastructure companies, digital marketing agencies, system integrators and end-users are not meaningfully contributing code to Drupal.org today. How can we explain this disparity in comparison to traditional Drupal businesses who contribute the most? We believe the biggest reasons are:

  1. Drupal's strategic importance. A variety of the traditional Drupal agencies have been involved with Drupal for 10 years and almost entirely depend on Drupal to support their business. Given both their expertise and dependence on Drupal, they are most likely to look after Drupal's development and well-being. These organizations are typically recognized as Drupal experts and are sought out by organizations that want to build a Drupal website. Contrast this with most of the digital marketing agencies and system integrators who are sized to work with a diversified portfolio of content management platforms and who are historically only getting started with Drupal and open source. They deliver digital marketing solutions and aren't necessarily sought out for their Drupal expertise. As their Drupal practices grow in size and importance, this could change. In fact, contributing to Drupal can help grow their Drupal business because it helps their name stand out as Drupal experts and gives them a competitive edge with their customers.
  2. The level of experience with Drupal and open source. Drupal aside, many organizations have little or no experience with open source, so it is important that we motivate and teach them to contribute.
  3. Legal reservations. We recognize that some organizations are not legally permitted to contribute, let alone attribute their customers. We hope that will change as open source continues to get adopted.
  4. Tools and process barriers. Drupal contribution still involves a patch-based workflow on Drupal.org's unique issue queue system. This presents a fairly steep learning curve to most developers, who primarily work with more modern and common tools such as GitHub. Getting the code change proposal uploaded is just the first step; getting code changes accepted into an upstream Drupal project — especially Drupal core — is hard work. Peer reviews, gates such as automated testing and documentation, required sign-offs from maintainers and committers, knowledge of best practices and other community norms are a few of the challenges a contributor must face to get code accepted into Drupal.

Consequently, this data shows that the Drupal community can do more to entice companies to contribute code to Drupal.org. The Drupal community has a long tradition of encouraging organizations to share code rather than keep it behind firewalls. While the spirit of the Drupal project cannot be reduced to any single ideology — not every organization can or will share their code — we would like to see organizations continue to prioritize collaboration over individual ownership. Our aim is not to criticize those who do not contribute, but rather to help foster an environment worthy of contribution. Given the vast amount of Drupal users, we believe continuing to encourage organizations and end-users to contribute could be a big opportunity.

There are substantial benefits and business drivers for organizations that contribute: (1) it improves their ability to sell and win deals and (2) it improves their ability to hire. Companies that contribute to Drupal tend to promote their contributions in RFPs and sales pitches. Contributing to Drupal also results in being recognized as a great place to work for Drupal experts.

The uneasy alliance with corporate contributions

As mentioned above, when community-driven open-source projects grow, there is a bigger need for organizations to help drive their development. It almost always creates an uneasy alliance between volunteers and corporations.

This theory played out in the Linux community well before it played out in the Drupal community. The Linux project is 25 years old and has seen a steady increase in the number of corporate contributors for roughly 20 years. While Linux companies like Red Hat and SUSE rank high on the contribution list, so do non-Linux-centric companies such as Samsung, Intel, Oracle and Google. All of these corporate contributors are (or were) using Linux as an integral part of their business.

The 889 organizations that contribute to Drupal (which includes corporations) is more than four times the number of organizations that sponsor development of the Linux kernel. This is significant because Linux is considered "one of the largest cooperative software projects ever attempted". In fairness, Linux has a different ecosystem than Drupal. The Linux business ecosystem has various large organizations (Red Hat, Google, Intel, IBM and SUSE) for whom Linux is very strategic. As a result, many of them employ dozens of full-time Linux contributors and invest millions of dollars in Linux each year.

What projects have sponsors?

In total, the Drupal community worked on 3,183 different projects (modules, themes and distributions) in the 12-month period between July 1, 2016 to June 30, 2017. To understand where the organizations sponsoring Drupal put their money, I’ve listed the top 20 most sponsored projects:

RankUsernameIssues1Drupal core47452Drupal Commerce (distribution)5263Webform3614Open Y (distribution)3245Paragraphs2316Inmail2237User guide2188JSON API2049Paragraphs collection20010Entity browser19611Diff19012Group17013Metatag15714Facets15515Commerce Point of Sale (PoS)14716Search API14317Open Social (distribution)13318Drupal voor Gemeenten (distribution)13119Solr Search12220Geolocation field118
Who is sponsoring the top 30 contributors? Rank Username Issues Volunteer Sponsored Not specified Sponsors 1 jrockowitz 537 88% 45% 9% The Big Blue House (239), Kennesaw State University (6), Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (4) 2 dawehner 421 67% 83% 5% Chapter Three (328), Tag1 Consulting (19), Drupal Association (12), Acquia (5), Comm-press (1) 3 RenatoG 408 0% 100% 0% CI&T (408) 4 bojanz 351 0% 95% 5% Commerce Guys (335), Adapt A/S (38), Bluespark (2) 5 Berdir 335 0% 93% 7% MD Systems (310), Acquia (7) 6 mglaman 334 3% 97% 1% Commerce Guys (319), Thinkbean, LLC (48), LivePerson, Inc (46), Bluespark (22), Universal Music Group (16), Gaggle.net, Inc. (3), Bluehorn Digital (1) 7 Wim Leers 332 14% 87% 2% Acquia (290) 8 alexpott 329 7% 99% 1% Chapter Three (326), TES Global (1) 9 DamienMcKenna 245 2% 95% 4% Mediacurrent (232) 10 jhodgdon 242 0% 1% 99% Drupal Association (2), Poplar ProductivityWare (2) 11 drunken monkey 238 95% 11% 1% Acquia (17), Vizala (8), Wunder Group (1), Sunlime IT Services GmbH (1) 12 naveenvalecha 196 74% 55% 1% Acquia (152), Google Summer of Code (7), QED42 (1) 13 Munavijayalakshmi 192 0% 100% 0% Valuebound (192) 14 borisson_ 191 66% 39% 22% Dazzle (70), Acquia (6) 15 yongt9412 189 0% 97% 3% MD Systems (183), Acquia (6) 16 klausi 185 9% 61% 32% epiqo (112) 17 Sam152 184 59% 92% 7% PreviousNext (168), amaysim Australia Ltd. (5), Code Drop (2) 18 miro_dietiker 182 0% 99% 1% MD Systems (181) 19 Pavan B S 180 0% 98% 2% Valuebound (177) 20 ajay_reddy 176 100% 99% 0% Valuebound (180), Drupal Bangalore Community (154) 21 phenaproxima 172 0% 99% 1% Acquia (170) 22 sanchiz 162 0% 99% 1% Drupal Ukraine Community (107), Vinzon (101), FFW (60), Open Y (52) 23 slashrsm 161 6% 95% 3% MD Systems (153), Acquia (47) 24 jhedstrom 155 4% 92% 4% Phase2 (143), Workday, Inc. (134), Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (1) 25 xjm 151 0% 91% 9% Acquia (137) 26 catch 147 3% 83% 16% Third and Grove (116), Tag1 Consulting (6) 27 larowlan 145 12% 92% 7% PreviousNext (133), University of Technology, Sydney (30), amaysim Australia Ltd. (6), Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) (1), Department of Justice & Regulation, Victoria (1) 28 rakesh.gectcr 141 100% 91% 0% Valuebound (128) 29 benjy 139 0% 94% 6% PreviousNext (129), Brisbane City Council (8), Code Drop (1) 30 dhruveshdtripathi 138 15% 100% 0% DevsAdda (138), OpenSense Labs (44)

We observe that the top 30 contributors are sponsored by 46 organizations. This kind of diversity is aligned with our desire not to see Drupal controlled by a single organization. These top contributors and organizations are from many different parts of the world and work with customers large and small. Nonetheless, we will continue to benefit from more diversity.

Evolving the credit system

Like Drupal itself, the credit system on Drupal.org is an evolving tool. Ultimately, the credit system will only be useful when the community uses it, understands its shortcomings, and suggests constructive improvements. In highlighting the organizations that sponsor the development of code on Drupal.org, we hope to elicit responses that help evolve the credit system into something that incentivizes business to sponsor more work and enables more people to participate in our community, learn from others, teach newcomers and make positive contributions. Drupal is a positive force for change and we wish to use the credit system to highlight (at least some of) the work of our diverse community, which includes volunteers, companies, nonprofits, governments, schools, universities, individuals, and other groups.

One of the challenges with the existing credit system is it has no way of "weighting" contributions. A typo fix counts just as much as giving multiple detailed technical reviews on a critical core issue. This appears to have the effect of incentivizing organizations' employees to work on "lower-hanging fruit issues", because this bumps their companies' names in the rankings. One way to help address this might be to adjust the credit ranking algorithm to consider things such as issue priority, patch size, and so on. This could help incentivize companies to work on larger and more important problems and save coding standards improvements for new contributor sprints. Implementing a scoring system that ranks the complexity of an issue would also allow us to develop more accurate reports of contributed work.


Our data confirms Drupal is a vibrant community full of contributors who are constantly evolving and improving the software. While we have amazing geographic diversity, we need greater gender diversity. Our analysis of the Drupal.org credit data concludes that most contributions to Drupal are sponsored. At the same time, the data shows that volunteer contribution remains very important to Drupal.

As a community, we need to understand that a healthy open-source ecosystem includes more than traditional Drupal businesses that contribute the most. For example, we don't see a lot of contribution from the larger digital marketing agencies, system integrators, technology companies, or end-users of Drupal — we believe that might come as these organizations build out their Drupal practices and Drupal becomes more strategic for them.

To grow and sustain Drupal, we should support those that contribute to Drupal and find ways to get those that are not contributing involved in our community. We invite you to help us continue to strengthen our ecosystem.

Special thanks to Tim Lehnen and Neil Drumm from the Drupal Association for providing us with the Drupal.org credit system data and for supporting us during our research. I would also like to extend a special thanks to Matthew Tift for helping to lay the foundation for this research, collaborating on last year’s blog post, and for reviewing this year’s edition. Finally, thanks to Angie Byron, Gábor Hojtsy, Jess (xjm), Preston So, Ted Bowman, Wim Leers and Gigi Anderson for providing feedback during the writing process.

With the Drupal Commerce 2.0 release slated for September 20th, we are making an effort to provide excellent documentation so that our implementers and end users can work with Drupal Commerce efficiently. We also want to encourage contribution at all levels, such as documentation. I am happy to announce we have moved from using Sphinx, a Restructured Text documentation tool, to GravCMS. GravCMS is a PHP based flat-file CMS, which uses Markdown.

Why the change?

We found that while Sphinx provided robust features, it also added a high entry barrier for documentation contributors: